Using Cannabidiol, or CBD, to treat PTSD has been shown to reduce anxiety and improve re-experimentation in patients.
It may also reverse the social isolation-induced impairments seen in some patients with PTSD.
CBD Reduces Anxiety During Re-Experimentation
Several studies have found that cannabidiol, or CBD, has anxiolytic properties at low to mid doses. However, the precise mechanisms of action and the extent to which CBD acts to reduce anxiety is still unclear.
A large body of research has been performed in animals, but much less is known when it comes to humans, even though there are certain statistics on CBD usage and effects in human population.
The pharmacological effects of CBD are largely mediated by the interaction between cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids. In particular, CBD inhibits amygdala activation.
It is also thought to suppress learned fear through a process called extinction. This process can be facilitated by infusing CBD into the paralimbic cortex (PL) and nucleus accumbens (NA), two brain regions known to be involved in learned fear.
A study using functional attractive resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity associated with the anxiolytic effects of CBD found that fMRI scans detected attenuated activity in the amygdala when participants were viewing fearful faces.
This may be due to CBD’s indirect effect on cannabinoid receptors. In addition to the said effects on the amygdala, CBD also inhibited the activation of 5-HT1A receptors, which are a key receptor for anxiety.
This study found that a solo dose of CBD reduced anxiety induced by a simulation public speaking test (SPST) in treatment-naive patients with SAD.
It also found that the CBD-induced reduction was comparable to the alert factors of a simulated VAMS, an artificial fear stimuli test. However, unlike VAMS, CBD was not associated with a reduction in subjective anxiety. Nonetheless, the study did find that CBD did produce a similar response to that of a placebo.
It is significant to note that in addition to the obvious effects, CBD has also been found to be anxiolytic at high doses. This is important because it suggests that CBD may be a useful adjunct in psychological therapies.
This study also found that the CBD-induced reduction of anxiety was associated with a surprisingly modest decrease in cognitive impairment.
However, the magnitude of the improvement in cognitive function was relatively modest, and the effects were not statistically significant.
Nonetheless, the effects of CBD on anxiety and cognitive function are likely to be more significant in patients with SAD.
CBD Reduces PTSD Symptoms Via The Drn And Corticotrophs Circuit
PTSD is a common, long-lasting, and often devastating mental illness.
It can be produced by a range of issues, including traumatic events, such as accidents, war, or childhood neglect. It is characterized by poor adaptation to traumatic experiences, hyperarousal, and depressive symptoms.
CBD has been shown to reduce PTSD symptoms in animal models. The DRN and corticoraphe circuits play a key role in this process.
The corticoraphe circuit is responsible for regulating anxiety behaviors. CBD reduces these behaviors in animal models by inhibiting the activity of the extended amygdala.
In addition to reducing anxiety, CBD also has the ability to reduce alcohol craving and drinking in animal models.
As a result of CBD’s action on the endocannabinoid system, it may alleviate symptoms of PTSD. Its effects are similar to those of some antidepressants.
CBD’s mechanism of action involves a combination of DRN-mediated restoration of mPFC activity and 5-HT release by DRN neurons. This mechanism underlies CBD’s ability to reduce fear memory reconsolidation and promote extinction.
CBD can also improve symptoms of PTSD in patients with PTSD comorbid with TBI. The symptoms include flashbacks, low mood, suicidal thoughts, and poor cognitive performance. Using CBD oil in topical form or edibles may help reduce these symptoms.
In addition to its ability to reduce PTSD symptoms, CBD may also have beneficial effects on other health conditions, including anxiety and stress-related depression. These effects are attributed to the cannabinoid’s ability to increase the endocannabinoid system’s plasticity.
Using CBD may also help people who are suffering from PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction. The study will investigate the effects of CBD on PTSD symptoms as well as alcohol craving and alcohol drinking.
CBD has shown to be a pretty safe substance. It is an active compound of cannabis and is found in several different strains. However, it is not FDA approved for use as a medication for PTSD. It is important to discuss use with a physician or other health care professional.
CBD May Reverse Social Isolation-Induced Impairments
Using a variety of animal models, Cannabidiol (CBD) has shown therapeutic effects against anxiety and panic attacks.
These effects are mediated through a range of pharmacological actions. The CBD action may be neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant. These effects may be due to CBD’s ability to modulate the activity of several CNS receptors.
CBD pharmacology has been studied in both rats and mice. CBD has anti-anxiety properties in both species. The mechanism of action in rats is similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs.
Its actions include inhibition of adenosine transporter, inhibition of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) channels and inhibition of NADPH oxidase. CBD has also been found to increase intracellular calcium concentrations in hippocampal neurons through mitochondrial uptake.
CBD is also thought to interact with TRPV1 channels. This channel is activated by noxious stimuli and prefers calcium to sodium. It is also activated by protons. Its effects in animals are dependent on the drug regimen and dosage.
In animals, CBD has been reported to improve the BPRS total score, which measures the severity of negative symptoms. Its effects on glutamate-based models may be distinct from those seen in dopamine-based models.
A study showed that CBD reduced the effects of ketamine on hyperlocomotion and prepulse inhibition in mice. It also increased plasma prolactin levels and reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypies. CBD has also been reported to attenuate the effects of MK-801 on object recognition, PPI and PPI-related impairments.
The effects of CBD are thought to be due to facilitation of the 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas associated with defensive responses.
In addition, CBD has been reported to interfere with the function of ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) and TRPV2 channels. This could result in interference with memory and learning/memory mechanisms. In addition, CBD inhibits nitrosative stress and oxidative stress.
The inhibition of nitrosative stress may result in the suppression of high glucose-induced superoxide production. CBD also inhibits the activity of the enzyme anandamide hydrolyzing enzyme. It inhibits the production of NADPH oxidases and reduces the expression of adhesion molecules.
These effects of CBD may be mediated by its effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to play an important role in neuronal physiology. It may also be related to cognitive deficits even in schizophrenia patients.
Cannabidiol (CBD) appears to have strong potential as an adjunct therapy for anxiety, PTSD comorbid with alcohol addiction, and social isolation-induced impairments. Its effects appear to be mediated by a range of pharmacological actions.
These potentially therapeutic effects are still being studied in further detail and more data is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.
However, preliminary research suggests that CBD may be a novel and effective therapeutic option for patients with these conditions. It is important to discuss potential use of this substance with a healthcare professional prior to initiating treatment.